Service discovery in the cloud using Avahi

Tue 27 November 2012 by Lars Kellogg-Stedman

I'm been writing a provisioning tool for OpenStack recently, and I've put together a demo configuration that installs a simple cluster consisting of three backend nodes and a front-end http proxy. I needed a way for the backend servers to discover the ip address of the frontend server. Since in my target environment everything would be on the same layer-2 network segment, service discovery with multicast DNS (mDNS) seemed like the way to go.

Avahi is the canonical mDNS implementation for Linux, and it comes with command-line tools for interacting with the Avahi server. There is also a DBUS interface and appropriate Python bindings for taking advantage of it.

It is relatively simple to publish a service with Avahi; you can simply drop an XML file into /etc/avahi/services and you're done. Discovering services on the client is a little bit more complicated. Doing it right would involve a chunk of code that interacts with DBUS in an event-driven environment with lots of callbacks. It seemed like a big hammer for my little problem, so I ended up parsing the output of avahi-browse instead. This turns out to be a little tricker than you might think, since:

  • The master node might come up after the backend nodes, so we need to wait for it to publish the service registration.
  • The registration process on the backends might run before the local avahi-daemon has started.

The -p flag to avahi-browse produces parsable output, like this:

$ avahi-browse -p _http._tcp
+;eth0;IPv4;master-cluster-lars;Web Site;local

The -r flag performs name->address resolution:

$ avahi-browse -rp _http._tcp
+;eth0;IPv4;master-cluster-lars;Web Site;local
=;eth0;IPv4;master-cluster-lars;Web Site;local;master.local;172.16.10.56;80;

The -t flag asks avahi-browse to terminate after receiving "all" entries, and -f causes avahi-browse to retry a connection to avahi-daemon rather than failing if the daemon is not available. Pu tall together, we get:

$ avahi-browse -rptf _http._tcp

We can use awk to get the information we need, and timeout from GNU coreutils to take care of the situation I encountered in which avahi-browse would never exit.

The final solution look something like this:

master_name="master-cluster-lars"

while ! [ "$master_ip" ] ; do
  master_ip=$(timeout 5 avahi-browse -rptf _http._tcp |
    awk -F';' -vmaster_name="$master_name" '
      $1 == "=" && $4 == master_name {print $8}
    ')
done

The value of $master_ip is then used to POST a notification to the master server with curl:

curl --silent -X POST \
         "http://$master_ip/proxy/backend/$(facter macaddress)"

The master service is running dynproxy, which is responsible for maintaining a list of backend servers that can be queried by other tools (such as Apache).


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