Systemd and the case of the missing networkMon 28 January 2013 by Lars Kellogg-Stedman
I was intrigued by this post on socket activated containers with
systemd. The basic premise is:
systemdopens a socket on the host and listens for connections.
- When a client connections,
systemdspawns a new container.
- The host
systemdpasses the connected socket to the container
- Services in the container receive these sockets from the container
This is a very neat idea, since it delegates all the socket listening to the host and only spins up container and service resources when necessary.
An interesting corollary to this is that the service container doesn't actually need any networking: since the host is responsible for opening the socket and listening for connections, and the container receives an already connected socket, you can create containers that have no network interfaces other than the loopback interface and still connect to them remotely.
The example presented in Lennarts article will work just fine if you change this:
ExecStart=/usr/bin/systemd-nspawn -jbD /srv/mycontainer 3
ExecStart=/usr/bin/systemd-nspawn --private-network -jbD /srv/mycontainer 3
After this change, if you connect to this container you'll see:
# ip addr 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
This opens up a variety of interesting possibilities for creating
"endpoint" containers that offer services over the network but are
able to limit the scope of a compromised service. Because
systemd-nspawn has been designed as more of a convenice tool than a
full container solution, we'll need to wait for
introduce this socket-passing feature before it's more than an